The Linux Files System: Part 2. What’s in Linux Folders ? The root folder (/) contains the following MAIN file folders. /bin * binary files; basic files needed for any Linux /boot * files needed to boot Linux /dev * device processes /etc + important information required to initialize most processes /home - user Work space explained in File systems part 1. /lib * module libraries, drivers /media - other partitions, USB devices (microdrives), solid state cards like camera cards /mnt - external device access–(floppy,CDROM and DVD drives etc.) /opt * sometimes empty, can contain specialize programs /root * the administrator home work space /sbin * similar to bin, more basic programs /usr + programs and library space(can be very large) a lot of programs are stored in the bin folder in usr /tmp *storage area for temporary variables /var * log files (start up files and error files) -* seldom accessed by the user + only occasionally accessed by user - used extensively
Users normally only use space in their Home directory. Here the vast amount of their data is stored.
The Home folder contains /Documents /Desktop and /Pictures folders at the start, but most users will add more folders like /Music /Downloads /Pix /Video etc. Each of these folders can be further subdivided to yield more folders and storage areas. This is the same as Windows.
Users normally can’t change things in the other folders because they don’t have WRITING permission. However, they may READ what’s in the folders. But the ROOT folder is NOT readable to any user outside of the administrator.
To access the other parts of the hard drive (Windows drives) the user opens up the /mnt (mount) folder or /media folder. In here you can gain access to the CD,DVD,and floppy. However, most new distributions allow this directly from the user’s desktop (Ubuntu).
On the desktop, you will find icons for the various drives that Linux has found on your system. This gives you immediate access to these drives from your desktop. There is no need to access them from the /mnt or the /media folder… but you should know that you can do this, soon or later you will probably do it.